Author Archives: Jason C. Morris, Esq.

Trustee or Not to Trustee

Nevada Trust

Most people establishing a revocable living trust select a relative or friend to act as the trustee. Many people feel that this is a bestowal of honor or dignity being conveyed to the nominated individual. The trust creators rationalize the choice of related party as trusts have a very personal element – distributing accumulated assets to loved ones or charities. Yet, the relationships between family and friends grow complicated with emotions and other factors after the trust creator dies. The mere fact of a close relationship is not enough to qualify any individual for the role of trustee. We find that many clients benefit from the inclusion of a professional trustee to administer and distribute the trust estate.

We regularly hear from clients during the estate planning process that “my kids all get along,” and “they would never fight over this stuff.” However, there are frequent disputes between siblings related to the actions or omissions of the appointed trustee. Where parents intend to disinherit one child or make uneven distributions among the children while naming one child as trustee, the groundwork is laid for a conflict. Similarly, parents may desire to leave assets in trust for the benefit of a child, preventing the spendthrift child from blowing the accumulated wealth. By naming a sibling of the spendthrift beneficiary as the trustee of the trust share, clients make the appointed child the bad guy. The chosen trustee may quickly learn that the assigned task is nothing but pain and heartache.

Recently, our firm handled a case where the non professional trustee retained assets in trust for decades longer than she should have. The trust agreement called for the immediate disbursement of assets to several individuals and several charities. Rather than make the prompt distributions, the trustee kept the trust intact and reaped hundreds of thousands of dollars in fees for herself. The charities and individual beneficiaries suffered significant damages which were nearly impossible to collect from the destitute individual trustee.

To avoid these difficulties and provide for a more professional administration, we recommend naming a professional trustee, such as a Nevada trust company or bank. Due to our favorable trust laws and no state income tax, Nevada has a strong industry of professional trust companies. Some argue that professional trust companies charge a higher fee than a lay person. That may be true in isolation. Yet, if the beneficiaries fight the trustee through litigation or the trustee does not appropriately distribute the assets as described above, the professional trustee fees are much lower.

One of the great virtues of trusts is their flexibility. Trusts can be drafted to divide the duties between a professional fiduciary and the individual trustee. A trust company can take responsibility for tax issues, issuing account statements, and making investment decisions. The non-professional trustee can be in charge of making distributions to the beneficiaries. The individual trustee will understand the beneficiaries’ problems and idiosyncrasies and can better address the individuals’ needs.

For those who have trusts presently, you may consider removing and replacing your current trustee with a professional. For those considering a trust, we would be happy to discuss the advantages of naming a professional trustee.

The 4 P’s of Protecting Your Family’s Legacy Home

Lake CabinThe lakefront home, the mountain cabin or the ocean-side estate all require special planning to protect and enhance these legacy homes. From Lake Tahoe to Donner Lake, from downtown city condos to Pacific Ocean properties, we advise our clients to give special attention to these legacy homes. These special properties need the “four P’s:” protection, privacy, probate avoidance and planning.

Protection:

These types of properties need comprehensive insurance coverage for potential damage to the structure, adequate liability coverage and an ownership structure that provides protection from outside creditors. Under Nevada law, limited liability companies (LLCs) offer tremendous protection, particularly if you or your family rent or lease the legacy home. A Nevada LLC may not prevent a lawsuit, but it will certainly deter potential creditors.

Privacy:

You and your family may not want to divulge the ownership of the real property. Nevada counties have very transparent real property records. Anyone with basic internet search skills can locate the owner of real property, past and present, and the price paid for the real estate. To provide a privacy shield, ownership of the legacy home can be held by a legal entity such as a trust or LLC, with a name unconnected to the family. You should consult with a lawyer to determine which device, trust or LLC, will best meet your objectives as simply titling your legacy home into an existing business entity is not a great solution. Doing so could subject your legacy home to the claims of existing or future business creditors.

Probate Avoidance:

Many people understand the primary benefit of a revocable living trust is probate avoidance. What many do not understand is that a revocable living trust can hold title to real property, like legacy homes, in other states. Families with real property in more than one state must have a trust to avoid probate. An existing revocable trust could be a ready-made device to hold title to your legacy home.

Planning:

Plan now if you want to keep the legacy home in your family. If you do not provide directions or instructions to your family, anxious beneficiaries can force the sale of the legacy home. You must establish a clear succession plan establishing how the property will be managed, maintained and eventually distributed to the next generation or beyond. Please contact a qualified estate planning attorney to discuss how to preserve and protect your legacy home.

5 Reasons Parents Should Discuss Their Estate Plans with Children

Gift to Grandchildren“What should I tell my children?,” is a common question I hear after clients execute their estate plans.  Few people enjoy discussing their own mortality.  And few parents speak openly to children about what will unfold financially after the parents die.  Parents may fear that by speaking about their estate planning it could ignite a family fight over who will receive what.  Further, many of my clients worry that children may become entitled and lose motivation to be financially responsible.

However, open communication can benefit both generations.  The parents can explain their decisions and the children can better plan their lives.  Further, children can provide feedback about their needs or lack thereof.  Also, parents and children can discuss tax considerations and develop more efficient plans.

Here are five reasons to tell children what is included in your estate plan before you die:

1. You can calm angered heirs.

Resentment among related heirs runs rampant after discovering Dad and Mom’s final wishes for the distribution of their estate.  Talking over the rationale for making unequal distributions can smooth ruffled feathers.  I have seen clients give more to children who have more children of their own as opposed to a child with no offspring.  I have clients who leave a greater share of their estate to a financially irresponsible child in trust so the child will not deplete the assets but they task a responsible child with making the distributions. Such an arrangement can be doubly painful for the financially prudent child. I have also seen heirs who resent their parents for leaving significant bequests to charities.  Parents can explain these decisions during their lifetimes, in their own words, to alleviate angry or bitter feelings.

2.  You can save hassles and prevent mistakes.

Children will be emotionally spent following the death of a parent.  If they have to search far and wide for estate planning documents and assets, they will be psychologically, physically and financially spent too.  Parents should let children know where to locate estate planning documents and what to expect within those documents.  If children are surprised by the deceased’s wishes, they may not execute those wishes properly.

3.  You may benefit your children’s lives now.

Parents should devote time to listening to and learning from their children about their financial wherewithal and work ethic.  Holding regular meetings or open dialogues would provide a golden opportunity for the parent to share their plans with the children.  Parents may withhold assets from children during financial struggles as part of a “tough love” approach. Yet, this approach can be viewed as stingy and cause children to question why Mom and Dad chose to withhold assets during the child’s difficulties.

4. Children might give you a better idea

Many of my clients hold significant wealth in a home or business.  I have had numerous clients wrongfully assume that their children want to keep the valuable home or operate the business.  I have come to expect that parent business owners do not discuss with their children whether the children want to keep the business.  Placing stipulations on the continued operation of a business or keeping a valuable real property in trust may not be the desire of the heirs.  Recently, I dissuaded a client out from keeping a family cabin in the Sierra Nevada mountains in trust for his children’s lifetimes.  One child resides in another county and the other child works as a very busy professional in another state and has not been to the cabin in six years.  Seek your heirs input.

5. You may save children taxes

You should consider whether children need additional assets.  Also, be mindful of the type of asset you are passing down to a child.  Consider the difference between an IRA account in which future distributions will be taxed and a rental real estate property with an existing mortgage.  A beneficiary working as a school teacher will likely appreciate the additional income from the IRA much more than a beneficiary working as a highly-paid physician.  For even greater tax savings, you may be able to make asset transfers directly to grandchildren and skip the children altogether.

Facebook Beneficiary Designations

World Wide Web

When was your last Facebook post?  Maybe more importantly, when did you update your Facebook beneficiary designation? Facebook, the world’s most popular social network, recently changed its policy to allow users to designate a “legacy contact.” The legacy contact will be permitted to manage portions of the users’ account posthumously.

Facebook initially froze deceased users’ accounts upon receiving notice of the death.  This original, hard-line policy angered many users’ family members, heirs and other users who wanted to edit the deceased’s account or provide information to friends.  Google, traditionally at the forefront, became the first Internet company to permit users to select digital heir for its Gmail email service and other services.  Facebook has followed Google’s lead and finally welcomed legacy contacts.

The legacy contacts will be able to post to users’ pages, change the profile picture, and even respond to friend requests.  There are numerous settings and levels of permission which can be granted, including access to the decedents’ posts and photos. The legacy contact cannot edit the decedent’s posts or what his or her friends post.  The legacy contact will not have access to the decedent’s messages nor will the contact be allowed to delete the account.  Facebook users may still choose to have their entire account deleted at death.

To designate your legacy contact, go to ‘Settings’ and selected ‘Security’ and then click ‘Legacy Contact’ at the bottom of the page.  From there you can designate an existing Facebook friend and give that friend permission to download an archive of your data or choose to have your account deleted at death.  As with most initial policies, Facebook’s current offerings are not optimal.  You must name an existing Facebook user and you can only select one legacy contact.  So spouses who travel extensively together may consider naming another individual. If you do not name a legacy contact, Facebook will honor digital designations made in a traditional, legal will.  For assistance with these and any other beneficiary designations, please contact our experienced estate planning attorneys.

Leaving Your Estate to Charity

Consultation

Would you leave a $150 million estate to your hometown? David Gundlach did. Gundlach made his fortune through the sale of a highly profitable insurance company. He left no heirs and wanted to give his money away. Gundlach left his entire estate to the Elkhart County Community Foundation in Indiana. Not only was this an extraordinary gift in size, but it was very unusual for another reason. Gundlach did not leave any stipulations on the use of the proceeds; the Foundation can use the funds any way it desires. The WSJ profiled Mr. Gundlach and his significant gift last year.

Mr. Gundlach is not alone in leaving a significant gift to charity. Increasingly, we see clients without children of their own looking to leave a lasting legacy through charitable bequests. Rarely do clients leave all of their estate to one charity but rather most clients spread the distribution of their estate across a number of charities. Many clients like to include specific uses for their funds. We regularly see bequests made to educational institutions for scholarships for needy students. Pet charities are a common choice for clients who do not favor any particular educational or religious institutions. For those without a particular charitable objective, a community foundation can be a great choice.

The virtue of a community foundation is the close relationship with the foundation and the local community. Like Elkhart, Indiana, we too have a community foundation in northern Nevada; it is the Community Foundation of Western Nevada (“CFWN”). The CFWN has given over $65 million in grants to our local community since its establishment in 1998. The CFWN manages donor advised funds, scholarship funds, and nonprofit endowments. In addition, the CFWN offers educational workshops, provides hands-on giving experience to high school students, and promotes giving among charitable boards. All of these efforts and programs enhance our community and enrich many lives. If you have charitable desires, there are innumerable ways you can leave your assets to benefit others, even if your estate is more modest than Mr. Gundlach’s.